The most common staging system for testicular cancer is the TNM system. It can be remembered in its abbreviated form as.
All tumor marker levels are normal.
Staging testicular cancer. Key changes in this publication include. Most often the first symptom of testicular cancer is a lump on the testicle or the testicle becomes swollen or larger. In this stage the cancer has not spread outside the testicle and tumor marker levels like HCG and AFP are not.
There are several staging systems for testicular cancer. Stage I is divided into stages IA IB and IS. When a Clinical Pathologist looks at the cells from your orchiectomy or biopsy they can determine what type of testicular cancer you have if any.
The SEER database however does not group cancers by AJCC TNM stages stage 1 stage 2 stage 3 etc. In stage I cancer has formed. Stage I is the least advanced or earlier stage and stage III is the most advanced or later stage.
The chapter on stromal tumours has been re-structured and revised under a new heading. The staging for testicular tumors is performed according to the TNM system with staging groupings. Confined to testis epididymis spermatic cord scrotum.
We have given a simple version of this below. The following stages are used for testicular cancer. Testicular cancer has four stages ranging from 0 to III.
For the 2021 Testicular Cancer Guidelines new references have been added throughout the document. As the testicles form and develop near the kidneys in a fetus the blood supply lymphatic drainage and nerves to the testicle originate near the kidney on that side. There are 3 stages of testicular cancer.
Lymph nodes involved but no distant metastases and serum tumor markers are. Carcinoma in situ stage 0 testicular tumors. Staging is determined with information from the orchiectomy tumor markers blood tests and imaging studies.
For testicular cancer there are 4 stages stage 0 followed by stages 1 to 3. Pathology is the precise study and diagnosis of disease. Its normal for one testicle to be slightly larger than the other and for one to hang lower than the other Some testicular tumors might cause pain but most of the time they dont.
You are likely to see your cancer described by this staging system in your pathology report unless you have a cancer for which a different staging system is used. Stage III is the most advanced cancer stage Some stages have sub-stages for example stages IA and IB based on where the testicular cancer has spread. Generally the higher the stage number the more the cancer has spread.
Stages I II and III 1 2 and 3. Confined to testis epididymis spermatic cord scrotum. This depends on how many lymph nodes the cancer has spread to and the size of the lymph nodes.
Stage 3 Stage 3 testicular cancer means that the cancer has spread to lymph nodes or other organs. In stage 0 abnormal cells are found in the tiny tubules where the sperm cells begin to develop. The staging for testicular tumours is performed according to the TNM system with staging groupings.
Testicular cancer staging describes how large a cancer is whether the disease has spread and whether it is producing tumor markers in addition to noting the level of those proteins in the serum or blood. The TNM Staging System The TNM system is the most widely used cancer staging system. These terms are used by the doctor when it comes to planning treatment prescribing medications deciding on surgical treatments or even estimating the likely long-term outcome or course of the disease.
Often the stages 1 to 3 are written as the Roman numerals I II and III. The staging of testis cancer refers to how far the cancer has spread. It can be remembered in its abbreviated form as.
The chapter on epidemiology aetiology and pathology has been revised. Talk to your doctor if you have questions about staging. Treatment for testicular cancer is based mainly on the type and stage of the cancer.
Lymph nodes involved but no distant metastases and serum tumour markers are not very high. Stage 0 is also called germ cell neoplasia in situ. The stage provides a common way of describing how advanced the cancer is so that doctors can work together to plan the best treatment.
Stages of Testicular Cancer After a cancer diagnosis staging provides important information about the extent of the cancer and how it might respond to treatment. The TNM staging guidelines developed by the American Joint Committee on Cancer are often used in testicular cancer staging. Recurrent testicular cancer is cancer that has come back after treatment.
Among the different stages of germ cell tumors pure seminomas tend to be treated one way and non-seminomas and mixed germ cell tumors are treated another way. One commonly used system in the UK is the Royal Marsden staging system. Distant metastases or moderately high serum tumour markers.
Stage 2 testicular cancer is split into 2A 2B and 2C. Rare adult testicular tumours. Most hospitals and medical centers use the TNM system as their main method for cancer reporting.
These abnormal cells may become cancer and spread into nearby normal tissue. Knowing the stage of the cancer helps the doctors decide on the best treatment for you. Testicular Cancer Staging and Grading There are two terms that patients should understand regarding the diagnosis and treatment of their cancer.
The SEER database tracks 5-year relative survival rates for testicular cancer in the United States based on how far the cancer has spread.